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Mrs. Maria Reiche from Nasca. Chronology

A life for the world. Victoria Maria Reiche-Grosse Newmann, 15 May1903-8 June 1998

Discovery of lines around Nasca - studies of Maria Reiche in Dresden - work in Hamburg - private tutor in Cusco - loss of a finger - staying in Lima and no return to Nazi Germany - life task of Maria Reiche with the lines of Nasca, Palpa and Ingenio

Satellite
              photo of a part of the Nasca lines with the road of
              Southern Panamericana in the Nasca desert. One can see
              only direct lines and runways. Later Mrs. Maria Reiche
              also detected the figures.  Maria Reiche
              vermass zuerst die Linien der Wüstenebene, mit
              Fotoapparat, Massband, Sextant und Kompass  Später
              entdeckte sie auch Figuren, z.B. den Affen. Insgesamt
              entdeckte Frau Maria Reiche ca. 50 Geoglyphen-Figuren.  Die Broschüre über Maria Reiche anlässlich ihres
                100. Geburtstags im Jahre 2003, Rückseite. Hier hält sie
                ein Zertifikat in ihren Händen El folleto sobre María Reiche con ocasión de su
                centenario de aniversario en 2003: Después de María...
                ¿qué?
vergrössernBooklet about Maria Reiche in celebration of her 100th anniversary in 2003

by Michael Palomino (2009)

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from:
-- Aurelio Baltazar Muñoz Alarcón: "Después de María... ¿qué? En el centenario de su nacimiento" (in Engl..: "After Maria... what will come?"); in collaboration with Willy Rojas, Suhara Digital, Carlos Muñoz Alarcón; booklet of Province Administration of Nasca in celebration of 100th anniversary of Maria Reiche 1903 2003. Thank you Maria! purchased in Nasca in August 2009 in the library at Main Square (Playa Mayor, Playa de Armas) of Nasca. Thanks Maria!
-- Erich von Daeniken: Zeichen für die Ewigkeit. Die Botschaft von Nazca (Engl.: Return of the Gods); Goldmann Edition 1997
-- web sites.


Prehistory: Detection of the Nasca lines by the Spanish colonists

Satellite photo of a part of the
                Nasca lines with the road of Southern Panamericana in
                the Nasca desert. One can see only direct lines and
                runways. Later Mrs. Maria Reiche also detected the
                figures.
Satellite photo of a part of the Nasca lines with the road of Southern Panamericana in the Nasca desert. One can see only direct lines and runways. Later Mrs. Maria Reiche also detected the figures.

Position of the Nasca lines
The lines of Nasca are between km 419 and 465 of Southern Panamericana, especially in the Plain of Jumana (in reference to the village "Jumana") and in the Plain of San José (in reference to the village "San José"), originally called "Pampa de Jumana" and "Pampa de San José" (p.24).

Pampa de Jumana is the plain around Panamericana. Pampa de San José is in the Ingenio valley [19].

1537: First detection of the Nasca lines by the Spaniards: Pedro Cieza de León
Francisco Pizarro visited the region of Nasca (in Quechua: Nanasca [19]), and Pedro Cieza de León saw the big earth drawings (geoglyphs) and noted:

"Signs in a part of the desert surrounding Nanasca..., so the Indians (natives) can detect their way they have to follow." (p.22)

(orig. Span.: "Signos de alguna parte del desierto que circunda a Nanasca..., para que los indios puedan encontrar el camino que deben seguir." (p.22))

Pedro Cieza de León, here is a print of one of
                  his reports about the "Indians" (natives),
                  noted about the Nasca lines as first European in 1537
vergrössernPedro Cieza de León, here is a print of one of his reports about the "Indians" (natives),
noted about the Nasca lines as first European in 1537


1554: Notation of the Spaniard Francisco Hernandez Giron about the Nasca lines
Racist Spaniard Francisco Hernandez Giron noted:

"The Indians draw big lines in the soil." (p.23)

(orig. Span.: "Los indios trazaban grandes líneas en el suelo." (p.23))

Racist Francisco Hernandez Giron on
                a title page of his "colonial occupation"
                ("conquista"), mentioned the lines of Nasca in
                1554
Racist Francisco Hernandez Giron on a title page of his "colonial occupation" ("conquista"), mentioned the lines of Nasca in 1554

1586: Notation of the Spaniard Luis de Monzon about the Nasca lines
Luis de Monzon noted the Nasca lines in 1586:
"Before the Spaniards and before the Inkas the Viracochas were governing this region. The Indians followed their advice and they built ways which can be seen today, long ways like roads..." (p.23)

(orig. Span.: "Antes que los españoles dominaran a los Incas, en tiempos antiquísimos llegaron los VIRACOCHAS a estas tierras; los indios obedeciendo a sus sugerencias hicieron caminos que hasta ahora se pueden ver, largos como una calle..." (p.23))

1839: Notation by a public servant Don José María Córdova and Urrutia
Don José María Córdova and Urrutia wrote about people which have contacts with villages of the Hoya Geográfica del Río Grande region:

"... In the neighbouring plains there are drawn many drawings in different figures." (p.23)

(orig. Span.: "... En las llanuras inmediatas hay muchas piedras dentistas que representan variedad de figuras." (p.23))

1926: Toribio Mejia Xesspe and Alfred Kroeber
Xesspe and Kroeber see at the "Calera" ["chalkstone"] lines and trapezoids. Toribio Mejía Xesspe, a pupil of Tello, was the first describing the lines in some detail (p.23).
Alfred
              Kroebe, portrait
Alfred Kroebe, portrait

1939: Report from Xesspe at Archaeological National Congress about lines of Nasca
(orig.: "Congreso Nacional de Arqueología") (p.23)

1939: Presentation at the Americanist Congress
In 1939 Tello pupil Toribio Mejía Xesspe presented the Nasca lines at 27th International Americanist Congress (p.23).


Maria Reiche

Birth in 1903 - studies in Dresden

Maria Reiche in 1907
                        about, about 4 years old
Maria Reiche in 1907 about, about 4 years old
Maria Reiche in
                        about 1910 with about 7 years (right), with her
                        mother (in the middle) and with her sister
                        Renate (left)
Maria Reiche in about 1910 with about 7 years (right), with her mother (in the middle) and with her sister Renate (left)
Father Max Felix
                        Reiche
Father Max Felix Reiche
Map of Germany with the position of
                          Dresden
Map of Germany with the position of Dresden
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx




Maria Reiche (Victoria Maria Reiche-Grosse Newmann) was born in Germany in Dresden (main town of Saxony) on 15 May 1903. Her parents were Max Felix Reiche-Grosse and Anna Elizabeth Newmann (p.7). Maria Reiche studied in Dresden at the Technical University (two semesters in Hamburg and Leipzig) [2] and at the university. When she developed more and more knowledge in mathematics she was fascinated from precise working and from truth expressed by the figures. She finished her studies in maths, geography, physics and pedagogy (p.8) and philosophy [2]. With this she had passed her higher teacher's training certificate [9].

Maria Reiche also played well the piano and the flute (p.13).

1919-1932: Hamburg
In 1929 Maria Reiche got a job in Hamburg [2] but never got more than assistance jobs [9] By economical crisis [6] and by uprising national socialism [9] she found that a stay abroad would be good for her and applied for a job as private tutor in Cusco. She was elected from 80 applicants and undertook the trip from Hamburg to Lima [9].

Hamburg, the
                        freeport in the 1920s (web site
                        www.bildarchiv-hamburg.de)
Hamburg, the freeport in the 1920s (web site www.bildarchiv-hamburg.de)
World map with the
                        trip from Hamburg to Lima (port Callao)
World map with the trip from Hamburg to Lima (port Callao)

During the trip the ship passed some rain bows following one another [7,22]. This natural spectacle made a big impression on Maria Reiche [7].

since 1932: Cusco
Mrs.  Reiche was traveling to Cusco in 1932 for a German-Peruvian family of Mr. Tabel (German consul and head of a brewery) to educate their children as a private tutor (p.7).

Maria Reiche in Cusco with a tuna
                cactus aside
Maria Reiche in Cusco with a tuna cactus aside

When Maria Reiche came to Peru and established in Cusco she could not one single word of Spanish. By a certain need she purchased her first book "Korichampi" (transl. "Golden Age") from young Lisandro Caller. He was the father of Maria's girlfriend Clorinda Caller Iberico (p.7).

In Cusco she also made many walks, and one time she got a spine into her middle finger of the right hand which developed that unfortunately that the finger had to be amputated (p.12).

Maria Reiche stayed two years in Cusco [10]. She was occupied a lot with cultural heredity of Peru with the Inkas as diary notations prove [29].

1934? Trip to Lima
Maria traveled by train from Cusco to Arequipa where she bought a ticket for a ship from Mollendo to Lima. In the ship the German consul said that Maria Reiche was forbidden to leave the ship in Lima, but she had to return directly to Germany to Hamburg (p.8).

Map of the trip of Maria Reiche
                from Cusco over Arequipa to Mollendo by train, and then
                from Mollendo to the port of Callao near Lima by ship
Map of the trip of Maria Reiche from Cusco over Arequipa to Mollendo by train, and then from Mollendo to the port of Callao near Lima by ship

Trip to Lima - a kindergarten
Maria never wanted to return back to Germany (p.8), and at this time it was a Nazi Germany [6]. On the ship she got to know a young woman who had a kindergarten project in Peru where the children should learn English. The new friend was the daughter of a member at the Court of Lima. Maria offered her collaboration but also told about her circumstances of her trip and had to indicate that she could not stay in Lima. The relation to the family of this young lady contributed that the circumstances cleared up (p.8) and Maria Reiche could stay in Peru [6].

One day the kindergarten was shut and Maria began to work as a translator and as a language teacher (p.9). She worked at the German School at Miraflores (orig.: "Colegio Alemán de Miraflores") (p.14). One of the pupils was Amy Meredith, and there developed a strong friendship, "as if two persons wanted to go together over all mountains and wanted to find out all what exists on the world" (orig.: "como una unión de dos montañas empeñadas en sobrepasar todas las cumbres, viendo y buscando siempre más allá"). Amy became Maria' best girlfriend (p.9).

Maria Reiche gave German and English lessons, also gymnastics and massages [10].

At the beginning Spanish of Maria Reiche had a very "teutonic" accent using f.e. only the basic forms of the verbs etc. [5] and it can be that this was irritating the Peruvian partners first. But then as a translator in Lima it can be sure that she spoke a goos Spanish [6]. But also sneering Peruvian newspaper articles after her death called her a "gringa" yet and allege her a Spanish of her first times, f.e. the article of the daily paper of Nasca "Cronista de Nasca" from 12 January 2008: Una gringa en Nasca: María Reiche (Engl.: "A Gringa In Nasca: Maria Reiche") [5]. But racism and mockery against foreigners has a big tradition in Peru, and the Peruvians mean yet they would be "intelligent" making these bad jokes. But Peruvians never will be more intelligent with their traditional racism and mockery... [6]

Maria Reiche in the 1930s about in
                Peru, portrait. Her shortsightedness was detected only
                in Peru, and since then she was wearer of glasses [7].
Maria Reiche in the 1930s about in Peru, portrait. Her shortsightedness was detected only in Peru,
and since then she was wearer of glasses [7].

1937: National Anthropological National Museum - Julio C. Tello - accountancy in a tee saloon

In 1937 Maria Reiche became member of National Anthropological National Museum [in Lima], as translator and as 
  
Julio
                        C. Tello, für den Maria Reiche Übersetzungen
                        machte
Julio C. Tello, for him Maria Reiche made translations
  
assistant of Doctor Julio C. Tello, the museum's director (p.9). In a  tee saloon of her girlfriend Amy Meredith at Olaya lane (orig.: "Pasaje Olaya") in Lima (p.8) Maria Reiche was working as an accountant (p.9). This café was not a normal café but a favorite meeting point for professors, students, managers and foreigners [10].

Translation work - Clorinda Caller Iberico - Dr. Tello - orphan Esparte with singing talent
In 1940 in National University of San Marcos [in Lima] Maria Reiche got to know Clorinda Caller Iberico. Maria Reiche was making translations from German and from English for the professorship of anthropology. Doctor Julio C.Tello and Clorinda Caller Iberico dictated the text, and she translated it an put it down on type writer. Clorinda Caller Iberico was one of the few real girlfriends of Maria in Peru (p.9). With Clorinda Caller was living an orphan from the jungle, Esparta. Clorinda was like a mother for her. Maria Reiche teached her reading and writing and detected a splendid hereditary singing talent and brought her to Germany later (p.15).

Besides Maria Reiche played in an excellent manner classical music on the piano and on the flute and developed also an activity as a music critic (p.13), and in the Archeologic Museum of Lima ("Museo de Arqueología") she prepared burial shrouds of mummies [10].

1938: Construction of Panamericana - partition of the soil drawing of the lizard
In 1938 the Southern Panamerican highway "Panamericana" was built, and building it the soil drawing of the lizard was parted. Before the construction of Panamericana the population was passing the drawings arbitrary, and the population never saw one single figure... [7]

Map of
                        the main figures of Nasca with the Panamericana
                        parting the lizard (figure no.7)
Map of the main figures of Nasca with the Panamericana parting the lizard (figure no.7)

The other figures are almost all wrong in the map because they are not turned with the compass rose,and the tree (figure no.8) has it's crown to the contrary direction, see the analysis of the maps of the Nasca figures.

1939: Dr. Paul Kosok investigating old irrigation systems in Peru - Kosok at the tracks of the aqueducts of Nasca - Kosok detecting also the lines around Nasca

In 1939 the "American" history professor Dr. Paul Kosok from Long Island University came to Nasca. His specialty were old irrigation systems  which he had studied in this year already in Northern Peru. Some scientists before him had detected the aqueducts  and this he wanted to verify  here. But he noted that the soil was much too permeable and water channels were impossible here he thought. During his work he also detected Nasca figures, f.e. a bird, or a star. And by chance he took a photo of a line on 21 June 1939 which correlated with the solstice. But the mission of Kosok in Peru should end soon, so he was looking for a research assistant who would go on with his work with the Nasca lines [7].

1941: Professor Paul Kosok looking for a translator and an assistant for the Nasca lines - meeting in the café
Maria Reiche got to know Professor Paul Kosok. Paul Kosok - a singular person and attracted by the beautiful location of the tee saloon of Amy Meredith (p.8) was talking a long time with Amy looking for a woman who was English speaking and was good in maths (p.9) for a translation of his articles about the Nasca lines from English into Spanish [10]. Then Maria Reiche entered the saloon - she was doing the accounting by friendship there. Amy Meredith called her and presented her Mr. Kosok (p.9). Kosok also spoke about the strange, dead straight lines and to show them to her. Kosok presumed that there was an astronomic calendar [10]. And soon after their first meeting they were together in the Nasca plain in a plain of aerial photo service (orig.: "Servicio Aerofotográfico") (p.9).

Maria Reiche with
                        Paul Kosok measuring lines of Nasca, 1940s
Maria Reiche with Paul Kosok measuring lines of Nasca, 1940s
Paul Kosok at a line
                        pointing to sunrise at solstice, 1940s
Paul Kosok at a line pointing to sunrise at solstice, 1940s

Maria Reiche agreed to the research mandate and by this became Kosok's research assistant [7]. Maria Reiche translated the article of Dr. Kosok from English into Spanish [29]. With her assistant job with Dr. Kosok she converted from a teacher and translator to a woman archaeologist [17], an epoch-making woman archaeologist and desert cartographer [6].

Satellite photo of a part of the
                Nasca lines with the road of Southern Panamericana in
                the Nasca desert. In this hot desert Maria Reiche was
                living the rest of her life to measure the lines
Satellite photo of a part of the Nasca lines with the road of Southern Panamericana in the Nasca desert. In this hot desert Maria Reiche was living the rest of her life to measure the lines

1941: Working in the Nasca desert - lodging at km 417
The first time Maria Reiche was working in Nasca on 17 December 1941 to record solstice in the Nasca desert for Professor Paul Kosok (p.10). She took a night in the Nasca Hotel "Royal", today at the third block of Lima square (orig.: "Calle Lima"). (p.11)

A truck, a ladder and measuring instruments - first only the lines were measured
Maria Reiche made her first photos with a borrowed ladder of the electricity company and a rented truck [29]. First Maria Reiche took the big lines and measured them with a ladder, a measuring tape, a sextant  and with a compass to link the lines together with astronomic facts. Besides were detected also the figures which were measured only when her eyesight was going down [11].

First Maria Reiche
                        measured the lines in the desert plain, with
                        camera, measuring band, sextant and compass.
First Maria Reiche measured the lines in the desert plain, with camera, measuring band, sextant and compass.
Some lines headed
                        directly on the steep hills
Some lines headed directly on the steep hills

1942: Big earthquake in Nasca
[5]; it can be admitted that after the big earthquake the population had other things in their heads than to see lines in a desert or to think about the generation of these lines, and that's also why there was hardly any enthusiasm in the population for the lines [6].

Maria Reiche in 1942
                        at measuring work in Pachacamac near Lima
Maria Reiche in 1942 at measuring work in Pachacamac near Lima
x
Line
                          of solstice (21 December) with cane and hat
                          from Maria Reiche. To put cane and hat was one
                          of her working methods of her measuring work.
Line of solstice (21 December) with cane and hat from Maria Reiche. To put cane and hat was one of her working methods of her measuring work.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx



12 February 1945: Entry into the war of Peru and interruption of Nasca work
Peru entered the war on 12 February 1945 on the side of the allies [8], and by this all Germans - also Maria Reiche - only was permitted to stay in Lima. This was a break of work in Nasca of some months [7].

since 1946: full time in Nasca - finances and help
Since 1946 Maria Reiche was only busy with the geoglyphs, one can say as a full time job (p.12). She began her lifework, mapping of the holy figures in the plain of Nasca [7]. The first figure she detected was the spider in June 1946 (p.12). She found the spider and sent photos to Dr. Kosok. He brought the photos in different magazines copyrighted but did not respond any more. She sent another letter to Dr. Kosok telling that the whole plane was full of figures. But Dr. Kosok another time did not respond. So Maria Reiche borrowed money and established in Nasca to measure systematically the lines and the figures [29].

According to Maria Reiche the only person who helped her was the mayer of Nasca and future deputy, Don Agustín Bocanegra y Prada who provided a garbage lorry and a ladder (p.17). With the garbage lorry Maria Reiche was driving daily to the Pampa before sunrise [11] to make the first photos of the plain (p.17). When it was clear that it was more intelligent to have lodging nearer to the lines she could establish herself at the Panamericana, at "Centro Poblado La Pascana" in San Pablo hamlet in El Ingenio district at km 417 of Southern Panamericana (orig.: "Panamericana Sur"). There the German scientist was living in a little house for her work and her research, 27 km from Nasca (p.11).

In the same year of 1946 Maria Reiche detected more marks, lines and triangles which had a link with solstice, and especially there were lines linked with the moon's positions.

Maria Reiche in 1946 on a ladder
Maria Reiche in 1946 on a ladder

1947-1948: Financial support for Mrs. Reiche's work with the Nasca lines
In 1947 and 1948 she got scholarships for the research in the plane of Nasca ("Pampa de Nasca") from the Higher National University of San Marcos, all in all 2500 Soles. Clorinda Caller Iberico applied for the scholarship at Dr. Miguel Noriega del Aguila, high school professor at the Chemistry Faculty of the University. He approved the scholarship for his friend Maria Reiche (p.12).

At the same time the activities of classical music stopped, but the gods of Nasca had deplored her absence because only by Maria Reiche the figures of Nasca got world-famous (p.13).

The work of Maria Reiche in the plane of Nasca was supported by further persons and institutions:

-- Professor Paul Kosok
-- Amy Meredith
-- Clorinda Caller Iberico
-- Andrea Murguía Sender and family
-- Schoroth and Kanmacher
-- Agustín Bocanegra and Prada
-- Ing. Del Solar (Nasca - El Ingenio)
-- Higher University of San Marcos, Institute for Higher Studies
-- National Service for Aero Photos (orig.: "Servicio Aerofotográfico Nacional")
-- Booster Club for Reconstruction of Ica (orig.: "La Corporación de Reconstrucción y Fomento de Ica")
-- Lufthansa, at Kurt Zalud von Lima
-- Eva Pehlemann
-- Margarethe Scheweizer [Schweizer?] from Stuttgart
-- and all the drivers who had taken her with them to the Pampa (p.14).

1947 about? First aerial photos taken from a little airplane
Maria Reiche made their first aerial photos from Ingenio and Nasca with the help of the engineer Del Solar who was taking her over the Pampa. He was a pilot of little airplanes who were normally sprinkling over agricultural fields (p.17).

Detection of the flamingo figure with solstice link
When Maria Reiche saw the figure of the flamingo (span.: Flamenco, Parihuana) - which is 300 m long - she initially had the idea that there would be a link with solstice. In the morning of 20 to 23 June [there is no year indicated] she got aware that sun rise is coordinated with the beak and with the top of the hill behind. She meant that this would be the Sun's birth at the Inti Raymi festival (p.16).

Since 1947 Maria Reiche worked also with a theodolite as a measuring instrument [29].

1948: The first work
[In 1949] Maria Reiche was writing her first booklet in Spanish: "Los Dibujos Gigantescos en el suelo de las Pampas de Nasca y Palpa. Descripción y ensayo de interpretación", then also in English "Mystery On The Desert - a New Revelation Of Ancient Peru" (p.15).

At the same time the Peruvians also wrote many stories about Maria Reiche (p.14).

1952: Detection of the monkey
[28]; for  this figure of the monkey Maria Reiche had a certain preference because he only had 9 fingers as she had. It's sure that there would be something mystic or another enigma behind (p.12).

Maria Reiche, her
                        drawing of the monkey with lines in form of saw
                        tooth zigzag lines
Maria Reiche, her drawing of the monkey with lines in form of saw tooth zigzag lines
The geoglyph of the
                        monkey, the sight from above on the figure
                        cleaned by Mrs. Reiche. The monkey has nine
                        fingers and is surrounded by zigzag lines in
                        form of saw tooth zigzag lines and parallel
                        zigzag lines covering surfaces.
The geoglyph of the monkey, the sight from above on the figure cleaned by Mrs. Reiche. The monkey has nine fingers and is surrounded by zigzag lines in form of saw tooth zigzag lines and parallel zigzag lines covering surfaces.

1954: Great photos of the Nasca lines from skid of a helicopter
With 52 years Maria Reiche let fix herself on a skid of a helicopter outside of the cockpit to make big aerial photos of the giant figures. Her big photos made her world-famous [1,28].

A part of a map of the Nasca plane
                basing on a map of Maria Reiche
A part of a map of the Nasca plane basing on a map of Maria Reiche

The fight against the projected cotton plantation in the Nasca plane
During the first time Maria Reiche was helped in photographing and was helped to hinder the irrigation project for the desert (p.17). [The project was to convert the desert into an agricultural zone and to destroy all the geoglyphs].

<In 1955 a rich big landowner wanted to install a cotton plantation on the plain. There should be a big irrigation system. When Maria Reiche saw the first measuring poles on the plane she began her fight against bureaucracy. She went from one office to the other, from one newspaper to the other, organized expositions in Lima with her photos and drawings from the figures and from the lines.

Characteristic for the practice to present the women's working results is the article of "La Cronica" from 8 September 1955. There could be read: "One single woman wants to find out the mysteries of a 20,000 ha calendar, the world's greatest calendar? - Impossible! This is the work of a whole group of scientists, and this means hardship without limits in the desert."> [30]

(orig. German:
<1955 wollte ein reicher Grossgrundbesitzer auf der Pampa eine Baumwollplantage anlegen. Ein grossartiges Bewässerungssystem sollte gebaut werden. Als Maria Reiche die ersten Vermessungspfähle auf der Pampa vorfand, begann ihr Kampf gegen die Bürokratie. Sie lief von einer Behörde zur anderen, von einer Zeitung zur nächsten, organisierte in Lima eine Ausstellung mit Fotos und Zeichnungen von den Figuren und Linien.

Bezeichnend für den Umgang mit den Arbeitsergebnissen von Frauen ist der am 8. September 1955 gedruckte Artikel in der "La Cronica". Darin stand zu lesen: "Eine Frau allein soll den 20 000 ha des grössten Kalenders der Welt ihre Geheimnisse entreissen? - Unmöglich! Das ist das Werk einer ganzen Gruppe von Wissenschaftlern und das bedeutet Entbehrungen ohne Zahl in der Wüste."> [30])

[Supplement: The aqueducts already were there
It seems strange that the men of power of Nasca did hardly help to Maria Reiche. It can be admitted that certain agricultural interest to irrigate the desert of Nasca and to sell agricultural products was coming up again and again [6], above all because the Nasca plain already had a water supply by aqueducts [7], and because the neighbouring valley of Ingenio already was irrigated. The lines did not mean anything to the capitalist mafia, and it seems the mafia did not know that in Ingenio valley some lines already were destroyed. These destroyed geoglyphs of Ingenio are coming up again when the soil is dry untreated [4: Däniken, p.55]. All in all one can admit that in Ingenio valley about 20 further figures were destroyed before Maria Reiche began her work in Nasca. At least the soil drawings of Nasca were protected, so [6].

Session in Congress for the Nasca lines - mayor of Nasca stops the irrigation project for the Pampa
Mayor Bocanegra de Nasca called for a session in Congress of the Republic so Maria got the occasion to show 800 photos with the lines and figures of the Pampa. So she could also convince them that they were important also for the future of Peruvian and above all for local tourism. Since this time every irrigation project was blocked. The time gave her right, to the "Lady of the Plain ("orig.: "Dama de las Pampas") (p.17). She had won the fight against bureaucracy [13].

The dimension of the lines, quadrangles and figures

On a surface of 50 kilometers length and 5 to 7 kilometers width between the foot of the Andes and the Sea there are spread:
-- thousands of straight lines
-- hundreds of triangles and quadrangles
-- dozens of figures.

<The number of drawings on the Pampa is immense. There are thousands of straight lines, hundreds of triangles and quadrangles, and dozens of figures. All this spread over 50 kilometers from north to south, and 5 to 7 kilometers from the foot of the Andes toward the sea. The biggest concentration of drawings is always found at the edges of the different plains where the descent to the valleys begin [...] On the other hand there are some very isolated drawings in the midst of the desert. Others are on high mountain tops or behind mountain ridges> [7]

<There are figures only 4 meters long and others with a length of 200 to 300 meters. The same applies to geometric surfaces. There are some that are only a few meters long; the longest quadrangle further north has a length of 1,600 meters. The sizes come in several categories. The next category begins with a line that is 800 meters long. That's the length of the lines next to the spider and heron. There is another one half that size, a little over 400 meters. It is the quadrangle next to the lizard.> [7]

<The length of the straight lines also varies. I know two that are 9 kilometers in length and absolutely straight.> [7]

Maria Reiche about the quadrangles and the positions of the Sun and the moon
<For instance, the big quadrangle beside the figure of the spider is a moon direction and the other one beside the figure of the Heron with the winding neck, is one side in the single direction and the other side in the solstice direction! Such a quadrangle could have served to predict eclipses, which were a powerful means of subjecting the people. Even Columbus used an eclipse to frighten the people as he knew the correct time to do so.> [7]

Maria Reiche cleaning the lines with a broom from gravel and dust of clay

"From the air the figures were not visible either due to the nature of the soil at the time. You see the figures are of a whitish color on a brown surface, this brown surface is a thin covering of dark stone about 10 cm, which suffers the process of oxidation giving the entire region its particular brownish effect. Underneath the soil is still whitish, not brown, comprised of a mixture of rock that had been split into small fragments due to extreme temperatures, and clay, which ultimately was blown away by strong winds coming down from the Andes. The huge basin was filled with this mixture creating this flat surface we call the Pampa. This is why we only have these small pebbles on the surface.

The figures, the drawings, are very superficial furrows never more then 30 cm in depth, and very shallow. For this reason the wind has obscured them by filling them with small dark pebbles from the surrounding surface like grain, making them difficult to detect from the air. To make them more accessible for viewing I cleaned them with a broom, one broom after another throughout the years. I went through so many brooms rumors circulated that I might be a witch!" [7]

At the beginning the population was laughing at the women who is "cleaning the desert" [13] resp. about the "woman with the broom" [15].

Maria Reiche in the 1960s with a Volkswagen
                        (VW Beatle) and broom to clean the lines. The
                        old Volkswagen was bought by sister Renate for
                        Maria [18].
Maria Reiche in the 1960s with a Volkswagen (VW Beatle) and broom to clean the lines. The old Volkswagen was bought by sister Renate for Maria [18].
MMaria Reiche (here about in the 1980s)
                          cleaned the drawings around Nasca with a broom
                          so the world could see the drawings better
Maria Reiche (here about in the 1980s) cleaned the drawings around Nasca with a broom so the world could see the drawings better
x
A
                          part of the drawing of the flamingo (also
                          called arum, heron or Phoenix bird): Mrs.
                          Reiche cleaned all the lines so they were well
                          visible for world public
A part of the drawing of the flamingo (also called arum, heron or Phoenix bird): Mrs. Reiche cleaned all the lines so they were well visible for world public
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

So Mrs. Maria Reiche worked as a "cleaning woman" for years, and by this she is the most famous cleaning woman of the world, and we thank her for this absolutely troublesome work with the broom performed for years in the boiling heat of the  Nasca desert. At the same time there is the question why Mrs. Maria Reiche could not install a team helping her in this work, but it seems she did all alone because the machos of Peru did not help her, and because Nasca was in ruins since the earthquake of 1942 - the population was busy with it's own existence, but not all! [6]

Maria Reiche about the lines in sand storms and the contamination of an iron mine

<There are extremely strong winds here, even sandstorms, but the sand never deposits over the drawings. On the contrary, the wind has a cleansing effect taking away all the loose material. This way the drawings were preserved for thousands of years. It is also one of the driest places on earth, drier then the Sahara. It rains only half an hour every two years! Now all this has changed due to air pollution. Huge masses of dust and sand blow in from a large iron mine southwest of Nasca and fill the entire region with contamination, this produces precipitation, not enough for agriculture, but enough to endanger the figures.> [7]

1957: The first report abroad about Maria Reiche's work by J. Alden Mason
The first studied foreigner mentioning Maria Reiche's work was [John] Alden Mason in 1957 with his book "The Ancient Civilizations of Peru" (S.12).

J. Alden Mason's
                        book "The Ancient Civilizations of
                        Peru", first cover  J.
                        Alden Mason's book "The Ancient
                        Civilizations of Peru", second cover  J.
                        Alden Mason's book "The Ancient
                        Civilizations of Peru", third cover
J. Alden Mason's book "The Ancient Civilizations of Peru" mentioning Maria Reiche's work, some different covers

1960s? Death of girlfriend Amy Meredith
Amy Meredith suffered cancer, and after an operation science had no other explanation than cancer was incurable. Meredith fought for her life as she could traveling to Northern Peru to find a hope. Two weeks later she returned and had given up all hope. Three months later she was buried and Maria Reiche fulfilled her last wish at the funeral presenting Amy Meredith's message: "Dear friends, there was a trip without return; not one single second of my life I regret my ideas or was anxious of death; I will grow on and on, so the end of the humans  will be the human itself" (orig.: "Queridos amigos, emprendió el viaje sin retorno; ni en un segundo de mi vida me arrepentí de mis ideas, ni tuve miedo a la muerte; sigo creyendo que el fin del hombre está en el mismo hombre.") (p.13).

The death of girlfriend Amy Meredith left a big void in Maria Reiche's life (p.9). For some time there was no work in the Nasca desert (p.13).

1960s: Maria Reiche's life is going on to be in a spartan lifestyle
<Up to the 1960s of the 20th century Maria Reiche had measured a territory of about 150 square kilometer by foot. She continued with her spartan lifestyle in a little hut at the margin of the Pampa Colorada.> [1]

(orig. German:
<Bis in die 60er Jahre des 20. Jahrhunderts hatte Maria Reiche ein Gebiet von rund 150 Quadratkilometern zu Fuss vermessen. Dabei lebte sie spartanisch in einer kleinen Hütte am Rande der Pampa Colorada.> [1])

Maria Reiche,
                        portrait of the 1960s about
Maria Reiche, portrait of the 1960s about
Maria Reiche about
                        in the 1960s measuring a line here. This photo
                        became world-famous and changed the awareness of
                        the world [15]
Maria Reiche about in the 1960s measuring a line here. This photo became world-famous and changed the awareness of the world [15]

1960-1964: Collaboration with Yonah from New York - introduction of a card index system for the lines
<In 1960 Maria Reiche met 21 year old Jew Yonah Ib'n A'haron. He lived in the "USA" and had studied Torah and had  found a committee for the protection of the Nasca lines in New York. Between 1962 and 1964 he helped on the Pampa. He had many good ideas for Reiche's work, for example he developed a card index system for the lines with indication of their metering points and characteristics.> [1]

(orig. German:
<1960 traf Maria Reiche den 21-jährigen Juden Yonah lb‘n A’haron. Er lebte in den USA und hatte Thora-Theologie studiert und in New York ein Komitee zum Schutz der Nasca-Linien gegründet. Zwischen 1962 und 1964 half er auf der Pampa. Er brachte zahllose gute Ideen in Reiches Arbeit ein, unter anderem entwickelte er ein Karteisystem, in das die Linien mit ihren Messpunkten und Eigenarten eingetragen wurden.> [1])

1964-1965: Maria Reiche as language teacher in the country
Now Maria Reiche also was working as elementary school teacher against analphabetism at San Cosme Mountain of Lima (orig.: "Cerro de San Cosme de Lima") (p.14). In 1965 she was teaching in Ayacucho in Moya and Quinua where their work was taken over by a person who had learnt reading and writing by her (p.14-15). With this Maria Reiche could make some money for further work in Nasca [30].

1965-1968: Installation of a booster club for reconstruction
(orig.: "La Corporación de Reconstrucción y Fomento de Ica"); in this organization the members realized the value of Maria Reiche's work. The persons also realized that this region would be a future tourism zone with positive consequences for economy. They decided to encourage Maria Reiche to write a book about the Nasca lines and drawings, and the club would publish the book in German. They payed the trip and the expenses for the edition (p.24).

1967: Lecture of Maria Reiche at London University for the Nasca Lines
With this lecture Maria Reiche could reach that the destruction of the desert drawings was blocked (p.15).

since 1967: Correspondence with Clorinda
In 1967 Maria Reiche began a correspondence with Clorinda Caller Iberico in Lima (p.15).

1968: Book of Maria Reiche "Mystery on the desert"
The book of Maria Reiche is edited in German, English and Spanish and is a big success [13], in German "Geheimnis der Wüste" [14], in Spanisch "Secreto de la pampa" (p.14).

Maria Reiche's book "Mystery
                on the desert" of 1968 (here the cover) was edited
                just in three world languages
Maria Reiche's book "Mystery on the desert" of 1968 (here the cover) was edited just in three world languages

Now there followed participations at congresses and lecture tours. From now on also the tourists were a danger for the plain because they were driving with their vehicles through the Pampa [30].

1970: Maria Reiche at the Americanist Congress
Maria Reiche applied in vain for an international protection of the lines of the Nasca region. Her request was not followed and curious people were going on marching and driving on the lines [13].

1972: Thoughts about her work in the Pampa: Only after her death will be accepted

In 1972 Maria Reiche said about her work:
<At the end I am on the safe way, but this process is going on only slowly, and I don't take fright the trouble. I don't expect either that one understands me or that one accept my results (p.15). It's enough for me to know the truth for myself, and then I will die and then the people perhaps will accept.> (p.15-16)

(span.: <Al fin estoy en camino seguro, aunque el proceso es lento y trabajoso, no espero que me entiendan o acepten mis resultados, a mí me (p.15) basta saber la verdad y después de morir ya lo aceptarán probablemente.> (p.16))

About the Peruvians who are writing stories about her, she said:

<I will never loose my time with the lots of stories they write about my person. This is not important. The Nasca drawings  which are destroyed by many people and on which people is marching on, they are important.> (p.14)

(span.: <Jamás voy perder mi tiempo leyendo las muchas historias que han escrito sobre mi. Eso no importa. Lo que importa son las figuras de Nasca que son destruidos hasta hoy por la mucha gente que marchan sobre las figuras.> (p.14))

since 1973: Eva Pehlemann spreading the wisdom about Nasca in Europe
Since 1973 the German friend Eva Pehlemann supports the spread of Maria Reiche's work and research in the Nasca plain (p.17).

1974: Exhibition in Munich
Maria Reiche can perform her first great exhibition about the Nasca Lines, with the title "Peruvian soil drawings" (orig. German.: "Peruanische Erdzeichen") [28].

28 November 1975: First hot-air balloon over the Nasca plain
On 28 November 1975 the two scientists Julian Nott and Jim Woodman from  Florida succeeded with a flight with a hot-air balloon "Condor I" to get an overall sight of the Nasca plain (p.22).

Hot-air balloon ("Condor
                I" at 28 November 1975
Hot-air balloon ("Condor I" at 28 November 1975

According to Erich von Daeniken the balloon experiment was not a success. He indicates that the basket turned over and the two balloonists fell, and the balloon was flying alone some kilometers [4: Daeniken, p.127]. According to other sources the balloon made a distance of 3 km and a height of 350 m [16].

This balloon experiment was the start for tourist commercialization of the lines of Nasca in the plains of Jumana and San José (p.22). When tourism was starting in fact, Maria Reiche converted into a holy person for the region [13].

1976: Viewing tower
With the viewing tower at km 420 of Southern Panamericana, 3 km from the little house of Maria Reiche in the hamlet of San Pablo (km 417) [21] should be hindered that curious people were marching on on the lines or destroying them by driving [13]. The tower was financed by the Murguia family, especially by Andrea Murguia Sender, and some other friends who before had run semigovernmental organization "Pescaperu". The metal viewing  tower was a present to Maria Reiche (p.13).

The
                          viewing tower in the Nasca plain was financed
                          by a team of Maria Reiche and constructed in
                          1976.
The viewing tower in the Nasca plain was
                          financed by a team of Maria Reiche and
                          constructed in 1976. The shield of the tower
                          indicates that there should not be more than
                          10 persons on the tower.
vergrössernThe viewing tower in the Nasca plain was financed by a team of Maria Reiche and constructed in 1976. The shield of the tower indicates that there should not be more than 10 persons on the tower.

Der Aussichtsturm hat sogar eine
                          Ortstafel bekommen [24], denn scheinbar ist
                          der Turm so unscheinbar, dass viele daran
                          vorbeigefahren sind [6].
The viewing tower even got a place-name sign [24] because - as it seems - some had passed the tower without seeing it [6].
View
                          from the viewing tower on the Nasca plain with
                          it's Nasca lines
View from the viewing tower on the Nasca plain with it's Nasca lines

The viewing tower is located just
                aside the drawings of the lizard, the tree, and the
                hands (with 9 fingers as the monkey). There can be seen
                on the photo that the lizard was parted by the
                Panamericana at the begin of it's tail. The wheel tracks
                of "wild visitors" in the background have
                already caused considerable damage [25].
The viewing tower is located just aside the drawings of the lizard, the tree, and the hands (with 9 fingers as the monkey). There can be seen on the photo that the lizard was parted by the Panamericana at the begin of it's tail. The wheel tracks of "wild visitors" in the background have already caused considerable damage [25].

When the viewing tower was completed, Maria Reiche said:
<At last the viewing tower is ready. Now only a security is needed. I will do also this, but the people can watch now the drawings for free at least. The tower is from my part, and nobody has to pay  for it. The viewing tower is for the village's population who helped me in an anonymous form with my work. This is my manner to honor the Peruvians. As long as I live nobody will pay for watching the drawings.> (p.13)

(orig. Spanish: <Por fin está listo el Mirador, sólo necesita seguridad, ya veré como terminarlo, pero la gente subirá y mirará gratis las figuras; el Mirador es mío, nadie tiene que cobrar, es para la gente del pueblo que en forma anónima me ha ayudado en mi trabajo. Es mi manera de agradecer a los peruanos. Mientras yo viva nadie pagará por mirar las figuras.>) (p.13)

Since 1976 Maria Reiche also employed one security guard to protect the lines in the Nasca plain [13].

Maria Reiche in the car in the
                desert plain, in the 1970s about
Maria Reiche in the car in the desert plain, in the 1970s about

Just 2 km farther at km 422 of Southern Panamericana [21] there is a natural viewing hill which is used by some tourists to enjoy sunsets [27].

Viewing hill at km
                        422 of Southern Panamericana
Viewing hill at km 422 of Southern Panamericana
Viewing hill at km
                        422 of Southern Panamericana with sunset over
                        the Nasca plain
Viewing hill at km 422 of Southern Panamericana with sunset over the Nasca plain

1977: Decoration of the government of the republic "COMENDADOR" (Engl. Commander) for Maria Reiche
(p.21)

April 1977: Maria Reiche gives tourist information in the tourist hotel

Maria Reiche:
<Thanks to the courtesy of the director of all hotels of Peru I could take a first class room to give informations to tourists about the drawings who had taken a flight over the drawings. This was in April 1977.> (p.16)

The manager of the ex tourist hotel was Ginger Dianderas. There are rumours that when the manager was changing Maria suffered a lot and this had been one of the few times when Maria Reiche was loosing tears (p.16).

[It seems that the new manager never had seen the lines, and machismo and arrogance of Peruvians to foreigners has no limits, and this is also like this today in 2009. This exists in all levels, managers, "house wifes", artisans, taxi drivers etc.]

1978: Nasca territory is declared  protected zone
In 1978 Maria Reiche could effect that the Nasca region with it's lines was declared a protected zone [2].

November 1978: Visit by queen Sofia from Spain
In November 1978 it was Maria Reiche's success to show the drawings of Nasca to queen Sofie from Spain [20].

Maria Reiche in
                        November 1978 with queen Sofia from Spain
Maria Reiche in November 1978 with queen Sofia from Spain
(from: www.planetabenitez.com/80mundo/nasca.htm)
Maria Reiche im
                        November 1978 mit der Königin Sofia von Spanien
                        im fliegenden Kleinflugzeug, Figuren zeigend
Maria Reiche in November 1978 with queen Sofia from Spain in a flying little airplane showing the drawings

1979: Biography from Clorinda Caller Iberico about Maria Reiche
In 1979 Clorinda Caller Iberico edited one of the most beautiful biographies about Maria Reiche with the title "Maria Reiche y los Dioses de Nasca" ["Maria Reiche and the gods of Nasca"] (p.9).

1980s

Maria Reiche in the
                        desert plain in winter clothes, in the 1980s
                        about
Maria Reiche in the desert plain in winter clothes, in the 1980s about
Maria Reiche,
                        portrait of the 1980s about
Maria Reiche, portrait of the 1980s about

1981: Decoration of the Congress of the Republic "Great Official" ("Gran Oficial") for Maria Reiche
(p.21)

1981: First public birthday celebrations for Maria Reiche
In 1981 it was the first time that for Maria Reiche were organized public birthday celebrations in Nasca, for her 78th birthday. Initiator was the mayer Aroldo Corzu Catalán (p.17).

Since 1981 the name "Maria Reiche" also is used for public Peruvian institutions. The beginning was a schooling institution "Education Center" ("Centro Educativo") Nr. 22401, a part of the NEC Nr. 3 of Nasca, with the name "Maria Reiche Neumann". The denomination had taken place on the base of the regional manager's resolution No. 01069, taken by the regional Education Department ("Dirección Regional de Educación"), from 11 September 1981 (p.20).

1983: Maria Reiche receiving Federal Cross of Merit First Class of Federal German Republic
[1, 2]

1983: Maria Reiche receiving honorary doctorate of Ica University
[2]

15 May 1983: Maria Reiche Alley inaugurated in Nasca
[17]

On
                          15 May 1983 Lion's Club of Nasca opened a
                          Maria Reiche Alley [17]
On 15 May 1983 Lion's Club of Nasca opened a Maria Reiche Alley [17]
And
                          soon at Maria Reiche Alley there was installed
                          also a statue. In the background can be seen
                          the steeple of the church of Nasca at Main
                          Square (Plaza Mayor, Plaza de Armas) [17]
And soon at Maria Reiche Alley there was installed also a statue. In the background can be seen the steeple of the church of Nasca at Main Square (Plaza Mayor, Plaza de Armas) [17]

16 September 1983: Pension for Maria Reiche
Since 1983 Maria Reiche gets a state's pension ("pensión de gracia"). The resolution is taken by government of Fernando Belaunde Terry by the resolution no. 23674 from 16 September 1983. She gets 4 minimal salaries (p.20).

1984: Arrival and help from sister Renate Reiche
In 1984 sister Renate Reiche arrived at Nasca and helped Maria Reiche at work to mediate the message of the geoglyphs of Nasca to the world. Until today Renate is hardly mentioned. Renate's financial means were a help to beware the geoglyphs (p.11).

Renate
                        Reiche-Grosse, portrait with guitar
Renate Reiche-Grosse, portrait with guitar
Maria Reiche in
                        1984, she could only walk with two walking
                        sticks [17]. Parkinson was coming [15] which is
                        caused by amalgam, that's proved [31].
Maria Reiche in 1984, she could only walk with two walking sticks [17]. Parkinson was coming [15] which is caused by amalgam, that's proved [31].

1986:

Award "AMAUTA" for Maria Reiche, given by the Ministry of Education

(p.21) resp. award with the decoration of "Las Palmas Magisteriales" of the grade of "Amauta" [2].

Decoration of the wise of the Inkas for Maria Reiche, given by the President Alán García Pérez [2]

Honorary Doctorate of San Marcos University of Peru for Maria Reiche [2]

Maria Reiche in 1986 with 83 years,
                portrait with desert plain in the background
Maria Reiche in 1986 with 83 years, portrait with desert plain in the background

since 1986 about? Renate Reiche giving lectures about the Nasca lines
Now the sister Renate Reiche was taking over the lectures about the Nasca lines which had been given by Maria Reiche up to this time [4: Daeniken, p.52].

1986 about? Poem about the bold bird Peruvian Thick-knee (Huerequeque)
Mrs. Reiche wrote a poem about the bold bird Peruvian Thick-knee (Span.: Huerequeque) thinking on her future after her death: People, especially her sister Renate from Germany, should stay on this spot and everybody should be a Peruvian Thick-knee and to bother about  her sister and her property (p.18). Maria Reiche wrote the poem and the brothers Willy and Tito Rojas wrote the Huayno music for it (a typical Andes dance music) (p.19).

Translated into English by Michael Palomino:

Peruvian Thick-knee (Burhinus superciliaris)
(orig. Spanish:

El Huerequeque (Burhinus superciliaris)
Huerequeque (Perutriel, burhinus
                        superciliaris)
During sunrise Peruvian Thick-knee is awaking
and with his singing he brightens up all the East
and announces the Sun's loveliness
which will give light far and wide
and will cover the mountains with it's gold
as also the plains as far as they go
is shining the ray of the Sun
until they waves in the wide sea.

And when evening is coming with it's dark and profound night
and with the stars and the multi coloured lights
so Peruvian Thick-knee will sing again
saying Hello to the stars
which give their light through the golden clouds
with a blue sky in the background
where the desert ends.

Peruvian Thick-knee, Peruvian Thick-knee
he will guard my plains
Peruvian Thick-knee, Peruvian Thick-knee
he will sing for Renata
Peruvian Thick-knee, Peruvian Thick-knee
he will sing for Pilhips
Peruvian Thick-knee, Peruvian Thick-knee
he will give pleasure to my days. (p.19)
Amaneciendo, despierta el huerequeque
Y con su canto, ilumina todo el este
Anunciando el esplendor
Del astro rey que alumbra
Y que cubre de oro los cerros
Y también a las planicies
Se ve una vía luminosa
Sobre las olas del mar.

Y cuando cae, la noche obscura y profunda
Entre destellos, de luces multicolores
Vuelve a cantar en la pampa el huerequeque
Saludando a la estrella
Que brillan entre nubes de oro
Sobre un fondo azulado
Donde termina el desierto.

Huerequeque, huerequeque
Sigue cuidando mis pampas
Huerequeque, huerequeque
Sigue cantando a Renata
Huerequeque, huerequeque
Sigue cantándole a Pilhips
Huerequeque, huerequeque
Sigue alegrando mis días. (p.19)



6 July 1987: Installation of the "Maria Reiche-Grosse Newmann" Association
At 6 July 1987 at 11 o'clock in the morning "Maria Reiche-Grosse Newmann" Association was founded in the locality of the former tourist hotel. It's purpose should be to protect the geoglyphs of and around Nasca without view to profit. This wanted Maria Reiche. The founders were
-- Mrs. Dr. Maria Reiche-Grosse Newmann
-- Mrs. Dr. Gabriele Von Gaisberg
-- the lady ("La Dama"), Elena Graffon
-- further persons (p.25).

At the first board meeting the following persons were present:
President: Victoria Maria Reiche-Grosse Newmann
Vice President: Ing. James Martin Birkegk
Secretary: Frau Dr. Phylls Burton
Vice Secretary: Frau Gabriele von Gaisberg
Treasurer: Frau Renate Reiche-Grosse Newmann
Vice Treasurer: Dr. Linton Pitluga
Speaker: Ing. Moisés Velarde Santa María (p.25).

Maria Reiche 40 years after 1946 about their work: The ship passing the rain bows - she had an introvert education
Painted portrait of Maria Reiche of
                the 1980s about
Painted portrait of Maria Reiche of the 1980s about

<It was a kind of destiny. When I first came to Peru by sea the ship went passing through the center of four consecutive rainbows, four arcs, one inside the other! It was a marvelous spectacle. It must have been some kind of prediction or something. Imagine a boat, a boat driving through the open sea, passing through arching rainbows that touched the waves.

Everything had prepared me for this life. The isolation into which I found myself, my parents putting me aside after my brother was born, my shortsightedness not being detected, all made me an introvert. It made me aloof because I was never the popular type. Now the tourists have made me popular. I was never popular! I sometimes wanted to be, but I could never be. What compelled me on this quest was my curiosity - I wanted to know!> [7]

Maria Reiche in the late 1980s
                about, portrait with a coloured cloth
Maria Reiche in the late 1980s about, portrait with a coloured cloth

1990: Decoration "GRAN CONTRALOR" for Maria Reiche, given by the General Accounting Office of the Republic
(p.21)

1990s: Maria Reiche in the wheel chair - and work is going on
<Also when she was in the wheel chair this was not an obstacle for her to go on with her studies up to the old age.>  [1]

(orig. German:
<Selbst der Rollstuhl hinderte sie nicht, ihre Studien bis ins hohe Alter fortzuführen.> [1])

Maria Reiche, portrait, 1990s
                about
Maria Reiche, portrait, 1990s about

since 1990: Ronquillo one time a week
Since 1990 Maria Reiche was taken by air to Ronquillo one time a week to relax in the hot springs of Ronquillo. The sister Dr. Renate Reiche had a treaty for this with the caretaker Edmundo Olivera Lucas (p.18).

since 1990 about: Life in the hotel Nasca Lines Hotel in Nasca itself
The last years Maria Reiche lived in Nasca in the hotel Nasca Lines Hotel with swimming pool and not any more in the desert [26].
Nasca Lines Hotel in Nasca
  Nasca Lines Hotel in Nasca

2 July 1992: Maria Reiche is Peruvian citizen
Maria Reiche would reach soon 90 years when she - the "Lady of the desert" - got the Peruvian passport, in recognition of the hard research work which had saved the Nasca plain (p.18).

Maria Reiche, in 1992 about. Their
                last years she was with amalgam illness Parkinson in the
                wheel chair. Left the caretaker Francisco Cantoral,
                right Ana María Cogorno, holding books of Maria Reiche
                in their hands [15].
Maria Reiche, in 1992 about. Their last years she was with amalgam illness Parkinson in the wheel chair. Left the caretaker Francisco Cantoral, right Ana María Cogorno, holding books of Maria Reiche in their hands [15].

1993: Decoration "SOL" (Engl.: "Sun") in the grade of the Great Cross for Maria Reiche
(p.21)

1994: Arrival of girlfriend Eva Pehlemann
(S.17)

17 December 1994: The Nasca lines are declared heredity of UNESCO
The lines in the plains of Jumana and San José were declared for world heredity of UNESCO (p.24). Maria Reiche gets the UNESCO certificate for the enrollment of the geoglyphs and lines of the Pampa of Nasca as "Monument of Human Heredity" [2] with the signature (K/1994) [3].

The information board of the Nasca
                plains after the UNESCO resolution of 17 December 1994
                to call the Nasca lines World Cultural Heritage
The information board of the Nasca plains after the UNESCO resolution of 17 December 1994 to call the Nasca lines World Cultural Heritage

2 February 1995: Adoption
On 2 February 1995 Maria Reiche adopted Ana Maria Cogorno Mendoza as adoptive daughter (p.25).

Maria Reiche (center) short time
                before her death (in 1995 about, about 92 years old)
                with sister Renate (left) and Ana Maria, adoptive
                daughter
Maria Reiche (center) short time before her death (in 1995 about, about 92 years old) with sister Renate (left) and Ana Maria, adoptive daughter

Statements about her life in the Nasca plain
Maria Reiche said from herself about her work in Nasca:

<The gods of Nasca themselves have taken me from the beginning to their sand castle and have locked me up there to play with their giant drawings until I found the base of my existence one day.> (orig.: <Ya los Dioses de Nasca me robaron al nacer y me encerraron en su castillo de arena para que jugara con sus inmensas figuras, hasta encontrar un día la razón de mi existencia>). (p.9)

<I decided that my life will be in Nasca up to the last minute of my life. There will be only little time for this treasure which is in this plain. Here I will die.> (span.: <Tengo definida mi vida hasta el último minuto de mi existencia; será para Nasca. El tiempo será poco para estudiar la maravilla que encierran las Pampas: allí moriré.>) (p.16)

Where is love?
Maria Reiche avowed that she was with passion in love with one of her pupils with 40 years, but she never said it's name. But she said he had red hair and freckles. According to her girlfriend Clorinda Caller it was a young Jew  with poliomyelitis. He could speak some languages and add to this was translator at UN (p.16).

Statements of sister Renate about Nasca
Sister Renate said about Nasca: "All what I have done has been for this plain, for Maria and for Peru" (orig.: "Todo ha sido por la pampa, para María y para el Perú") (p.11).

1996: Strong earthquake in Nasca - the whole town is in rubble
The earthquake was during the day. By this there were only a few fatalities [19].

Earthquake damage in
                        Nasca 1996 (01): The whole house is a pile of
                        clay bricks
Earthquake damage in Nasca 1996 (01): The whole house is a pile of clay bricks
Earthquake damage in
                        Nasca 1996 (02): In this street mainly the
                        fronts are destructed. The side walls without
                        doors and without windows are staying yet
Earthquake damage in Nasca 1996 (02): In this street mainly the fronts are destructed. The side walls without doors and without windows are staying yet.



Reconstruction of Nasca: Quakeproof constructioning with columns in concrete - women included
After the earthquake of 1996 Nasca was reconstructed completely within 10 years, with decisive measures:
-- all houses had to be built in modern, burnt bricks, and with quakeproof columns in concrete [19]
-- the women got schooling in house constructioning to be part of the working force for the reconstruction [32].

1996 appr.: Death of sister Renate Reiche by a liver disease
The younger sister dies first [4: Daeniken, p.52].

31 July 1997: Nullification of the adoption
On 31 July 1997 the Supreme Court (orig.: "Corte Superior") declares the nullification for the adoption of Ana María Cogorno Mendoza (p.25). It's not possible to adopt an adult person [6].

8 June 1998: Death of Maria Reiche - Pilhips Pitluga should continue the research
Maria Reiche, the "Lady of the desert" (orig.: "La dama de las Pampas") died with 95 years on 10:41 in the morning (p.20). She died of ovarian cancer [33]. Maria Reiche died happily because she knew that researcher Pilhips Pitluga (North "American") would go on with it's research work (p.21).
Pilhips Pitluga, portrait, she
                should continue with the research on the Nasca lines
                after the death of Maria Reiche
Pilhips Pitluga, portrait, she should continue with the research on the Nasca lines after the death of Maria Reiche

The corporal remainings were housed in the mausoleum besides the Maria Reiche Museum at km 417 of southern Panamericana in hamlet Pascana of San Pablo in El Ingenio district, 27 km from Nasca, together with the ashes of sister Renate (p.20).

Maria Reiche Museum
also shortly called MR museum ("Museo MR") [28]
Maria Reiche in 1977 before the garden
                          wall in San Pablo in Ingenio district
Maria Reiche in 1977 before the garden wall in San Pablo in Ingenio district
The
                        entrance was remodeled and is the entrance of
                        Maria Reiche Museum of today
The entrance was remodeled and is the entrance of Maria Reiche Museum of today
The little house behind the walls was
                        converted into Maria Reiche Museum
The little house behind the walls was converted into Maria Reiche Museum
The
                          room of Maria Reiche is yet in this order as
                          it had been left, a part of the Maria Reiche
                          museum, where Maria Reiche is represented
                          writing on her desk, surrounded with many
                          plans and a German honoured flag. The papers
                          were left as they were at her death. This is
                          all unfinished research... [15]
The room of Maria Reiche is yet in this order as it had been left, a part of the Maria Reiche museum, where Maria Reiche is represented writing on her desk, surrounded with many plans and a German honoured flag. The papers were left as they were at her death. This is all unfinished research... [15]
Maria Reiche museum, the Volkswagen VW
                          bus used by her
Maria Reiche museum, the Volkswagen VW bus used by her


The text at the entry of the Maria Reiche museum

<It would be a very weak idea to admit that the great and precise work performed with a diligent perfection would give only the result that here would be presented only a primitive superstition or a sterile cult of the ancestors. At the contrary here is presented a testimony in a big style and singular in the world from the first awake of the exact sciences of the evolution of Mankind. It's a giant product of primitive spirit that presents itself in it's giant dimensions under the naked sky in a giant and isolated plain, always cleaned by the wind and burnt by the Sun.>

(orig. span.: <Sería tener una opinión muy baja de los antepasados suponer que todo este trabajo inmenso y minuciosamente exacto y detallado hecho con concienzuda perfección, tenía como única finalidad el servicio de una superstición primitiva o culto estéril al los antepasados. Al contrario tenemos aquí el testimonio en gran escala y único en el mundo del primer despertar de las ciencias exactas en la evolución de la humanidad, esfuerzo gigantesco de la mente primitiva que se refleja en la grandeza de la ejecución bajo el cielo vasto de las Pampas inmensas y solitarias, barridas por el viento y quemadas por el sol.> (p.22))

9 June 1998 (posthum): Verdienstorden ("Orden al Mérito") "GRAN CRUZ"  ("Grosses Kreuz") for Maria Reiche
by President of Congress ("Presidente del Consejo de Ministros") Javier Valle Riestra (p.22)

since 9 June 1998: Block of research: the researcher Pitluga capitulating before the Maria Reiche Association of Ana Maria Cogorno Mendoza
Further research on Nasca lines by researcher Pilhips Pitluga was blocked by the pseudo association "Maria Reiche" from pseudo adoptive daughter Ana Maria Cogorno Mendoza. Pitluga left Nasca (p.21).

October 2005: Inauguration of Maria Reiche Street in Dresden Klotzsche

Im Oktober 2005 hat der Verein
                "Dr. Maria Reiche" in Dresden eine
                Maria-Reiche-Strasse in Dresden-Klotzsche eingeweiht
In October 2005 the "Dr. Maria Reiche" Association (orig.: Verein "Dr. Maria Reiche") inaugurated a Maria Reiche Street in Dresden Klotzsche [23].

2008 apr.: Nasca is reconstructed completely
Reconstructed Nasca, Main Square
                (Plaza Mayor, Plaza de Armas), in 2008 about
Reconstructed Nasca, Main Square (Plaza Mayor, Plaza de Armas), in 2008 about

2008 about: Maria Reiche Park in Miraflores in Lima
One of the latest honors for Maria Reiche (about in 2008) is Maria Reiche Park in Miraflores in Lima just aside the Love Park ("parque de los enamorados"). Some of the Nasca drawings are implanted with earth lines and flowers into the lawn [17].

Maria Reiche Park in
                        Miraflores in Lima, the drawing of the hands
                        with only 9 fingers
Maria Reiche Park in Miraflores in Lima, the drawing of the hands with only 9 fingers
Maria Reiche Park in
                        Miraflores in Lima, the drawing of the monkey
                        with only 9 fingers
Maria Reiche Park in Miraflores in Lima, the drawing of the monkey with only 9 fingers
Maria Reiche Park in
                        Miraflores in Lima, the drawing of the spider
Maria Reiche Park in Miraflores in Lima, the drawing of the spider
Maria Reiche Park in Miraflores in Lima,
                          the drawing of the hummingbird with a
                          children's play ground with artificial lawn
                          aside, what an exemplary play ground!
Maria Reiche Park in Miraflores in Lima, the drawing of the hummingbird with a children's play ground with artificial lawn aside, what an exemplary play ground!

At the same time one can see that there are needed contrast colored flowers to make visible the drawings on a green lawn [6].

Result
<Maria Reiche detected and measured about 50 geoglyphs (drawings) and 100 lines in the Nasca plain.> [1]

(orig. German:
<Maria Reiche hat etwa 50 Figuren und 1000 Linien in der Pampa von Nasca entdeckt und vermessen.> [1])

<About 800 lines on a surface of about 120 squared kilometers were measured by her by the theodolite.> [30]

(orig. German:
<Etwa 800 Linien auf einer Fläche von etwa 120 Quadratkilometern wurden durch sie mit den Theodoliten vermessen.> [30])

Honors for Maria Reiche
among others
-- 1977: Decoration of the Government of the Republic "COMENDADOR" (Engl.: "Commander")
-- 1981: Decoration of the Congress of the Republic "GRAN OFICIAL"
-- 1986: award "AMAUTA", given by the Education Department
-- 1990: Decoration "GRAN CONTRALOR", given by General Accounting Office of the Republic
-- 1993: Decoration "SOL" (Engl.: "Sun") with the grade of the "Big Cross" (p.21), one of the highest awards of Peruvian Republic, the decoration of the sun [1]
-- 1998 (posthumously): Order of Merit "GRAN CRUZ" ("Big Cross"), given by Congress President ("Presidente del Consejo de Ministros"), Javier Valle Riestra (p.22).

Add to this Maria Reiche was given
-- Federal Cross of Merit of First Class of German Federal Republic [1] in 1983 [2]
-- decoration of the Wises of the Inkas [1]
-- title of honorary doctor of Peruvian San Marcos University [1]
-- all in all she got five honorary doctorates [1]
-- honorary doctorate of Ica University 1983 [2].

Works of Maria Reiche

-- "Giant soil drawing in the plains of Nasca and Palpa. Description and trial of an interpretation" (span.: "Los Dibujos Gigantescos en el suelo de las Pampas de Nasca y Palpa. Descripción y ensayo de interpretación"); Médica Edition ("Editora Médica"), Jirón Azángaro 906, Lima, 1948 (p.15)

-- "Prehistoric Ground Drawing In Peru"; Offiz Indruck A.G., Stuttgart 1955

-- "Secret of The Desert", 1968Maria Reiches Buch "Das
              Geheimnis der Wüste" von 1968 (hier der Buchdeckel)
              kam gleich in drei Weltsprachen heraus
-- "The bird calling for Inti Raymi festival" (Span.: "El pájaro Anunciador del Inti Raymi")
-- "Contributions in geometry and astronomy in ancient Peru" (span.: "Contribuciones a la Geometría y la Astronomía en el Antiguo Perú")
all in self-publishing by Maria and Dr. Renate Reiche, Stuttgart 1968 (p.15).

Books about Maria Reiche and her work

-- biography about Maria Reiche by Clorinda Caller Iberico 1979

-- Richter, Christiane: Heredity of Maria Reiche; In: Peru News, Special Review: The Coast (orig. German: Das Erbe der Maria Reiche. In: Peru-Nachrichten, Themenheft: Die Costa); Edited by Peru Office Heidelberg, archdiocese Freiburg (orig. German: Perubüro Heidelberg, Erzdiözese Freiburg), 2004 [1]

-- Schulze, Dietrich / Zetzsche, Viola: Picture-book of the desert. Maria Reiche and the soil drawings of Nasca (orig. German: Bilderbuch der Wüste. Maria Reiche und die Bodenzeichnungen von Nasca); Mitteldeutscher Verlag Halle, Halle 2005, ISBN 3-89812-298-0 [1]

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Further sources
[1] http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Reiche
[2] http://www.maria-reiche.de/leben.html
[3] http://www.unesco.de/liste-welterbe.html?&L=0
[4] Erich von Daeniken: The return of the gods (orig. German: Zeichen für die Ewigkeit. Die Botschaft von Nazca); Goldmann Edition 1997
[5] Cronista de Nasca (Engl. Nasca Daily News), Nasca, article from 12 January 2008: Una gringa en Nasca: María Reiche (Engl: "A Gringa in Nasca: Maria Reiche"):
http://es.shvoong.com/books/mythology/1744621-una-gringa-en-nasca-mar%C3%ADa/
[6] conclusion of Michael Palomino
[7] http://www.markawasi.com/nazca.html
[8] http://www.buenastareas.com/ensayos/Segunda-Guerra-Mundial/262.html
[9] http://www.htw-dresden.de/~nazca/maria01.htm

[10] http://www.htw-dresden.de/~nazca/maria02.htm
[11] http://www.htw-dresden.de/~nazca/arbeit.htm
[12] http://www.htw-dresden.de/~nazca/nazca.htm
[13]  http://www.htw-dresden.de/~nazca/schutz.htm
[14] http://www.htw-dresden.de/~nazca/Englisch/schutz.htm
[15] http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm
[16] http://pagesperso-orange.fr/yann.michel/perou_nazca.htm
[17] http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm
[18] http://www.southamericanpictures.com/collections/maria-reiche/maria-reiche-index.htm
[19] Information of the travel agency Peru Nasca Tours in Nasca

[20] http://www.planetabenitez.com/80mundo/nasca.htm
[21] http://www.frankonbiketour.de/Daten/FrankOnBiketourMeilensteine.htm
[22] http://www.labyrinthina.com/mariareiche.htm
[23] http://www.htw-dresden.de/~nazca/aktiv.htm
[24] http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_overview.htm
[25] http://www.galenfrysinger.com/nazca_lines.htm
[26] http://www.kuris-world.com/Peru-Dateien/Urlaub_in_Peru/Paracas_d/bodyparacasd.html
[27] http://www.nylonhead.com/project/world/2008/10/natural_mirador.html
[28] http://mvdata.com/va/Historia_spa.htm
[29] http://tu-dresden.de/die_tu_dresden/gremien_und_beauftragte/beauftragte/gleichstellung/mariareiche2

[30] http://tu-dresden.de/die_tu_dresden/gremien_und_beauftragte/beauftragte/gleichstellung/mariareiche3
[31] http://www.geschichteinchronologie.ch/med/Mutter_amalgam-zivilisationskrankheiten.htm
[32] http://www.predes.org.pe/p_nasca.htm
[33] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Reiche


Photo sources

Prehistory
-- Pedro Cieza de León, print of a text (Sevilla University):
http://www.fototeca.us.es/imagen.jsp?id=28820&tipo=v&elto=9&buscando=true&repetir=true
-- Francisco Hernandez Giron:
http://pe.kalipedia.com/historia-peru/tema/peru-conquista/fotos-francisco-hernandez-giron.html
?x1=20080607klphishpe_15.Ies&x=20080607klphishpe_21.Kes
-- Alfred Kroeber, portrait: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/klmno/kroeber_alfred.html
-- satellite photo of the lines of Nasca with Panamericana: google digital globe:
http://maps.google.com/maps?q=ica&ie=UTF8&hl=en&t=h&ll=-14.693898,-75.114158&spn=0.007265,0.00912 &z=16&source=embed

Maria Reiche childhood and studies
-- Maria Reiche 1907 about with about 4 years: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm
-- Maria Reiche with about 6 years  with mother and little child Renate:
http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm
-- father Max Felix Reiche: http://www.southamericanpictures.com/collections/maria-reiche/maria-reiche-index.htm
-- map of Germany with the position of Dresden: http://www.techno.de/party/deutschland.html

Hamburg
-- Hamburg, freeport 1920: http://www.bildarchiv-hamburg.de/hamburg/hafenelbe/speicherstadt/index90.htm

-- world map 1950: http://www.hl-kontakt.de/forum/viewtopic.php?f=52&p=2332;
http://www.heliheyn.de/Maps/Pictures/Tafel_D.jpg

In Peru in Cusco
-- Maria Reiche in Cusco:
http://tu-dresden.de/die_tu_dresden/zentrale_einrichtungen/ua/navpoints/archiv/alumni/folder.2009-01-22.1527267765/ksid
-- map of Peru Cusco-Arequipa-Molleno-Callao/Lima:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Peru_rel1991.gif
-- Maria Reiche in the 1930s about: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm

In Lima
-- Julio C. Tello, portrait: http://www.nflc.org/reach/7ca/enCASouthAmerica.htm

-- map with drawings and the parted lizard by Panamericana: http://www.weltbummeln.de/highlights/high_peru3.html

Maria Reiche with Paul Kosok
-- Maria Reiche with Paul Kosok measuring: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm;
http://www.nazcamystery.com/images/nazca_342.jpg
-- Paul Kosok during sunrise at a line of Nasca: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm;
http://www.nazcamystery.com/images/nazca_114.jpg
-- line of solstice with cane and hat of Maria Reiche: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm;
http://www.nazcamystery.com/images/nazca_72.gif

-- satellite photo of the Pampa of Nasca: http://maps.google.com, Satellitenkarte
-- Maria Reiche in 1942 measuring in Pachacamac near Lima:
http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm;  http://www.southamericanpictures.com/collections/maria-reiche/maria-reiche-index.htm

-- Maria Reiche in 1946 on a ladder:
http://www.southamericanpictures.com/collections/maria-reiche/maria-reiche-index.htm
http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm

-- Maria Reiche with measuring instruments, 1950s about:
http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm

Cleaning work with a broom
-- Maria Reiche with Volkswagen Beatle and broom in the plain of Nasca, 1950s:
http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm; http://www.nazcamystery.com/images/nazca_111.jpg
-- Maria Reiche with broom in the 1980s about: http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm
-- part of the flamingo drawing (also arum, heron, Phoenix bird), well cleaned:
http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm

-- Maria Reiche, drawing of the monkey: http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm
-- geoglyph of the monkey, sight from above: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nazca_monkey.jpg

-- Alden Mason, "Old Civilizations", different covers: http://www.librarything.com/work/231115/covers/

1960s
-- Maria Reiche measuring a line in the 1960s about: http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm
-- Maria Reiche, portrait, 1960s about: http://www.peru-planet.net/en/peru/nasca-south-peru/1,4

-- book "Mystery on the desert" 1968: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm

-- part of a map: http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm

-- hot-air balloon Condor I, 23 November 1975: http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm

Viewing tower of 1976
-- viewing tower in the plain of Nasca: http://www.peru.fun-zine.de/html/nasca.html
-- viewing tower with place-name sign "Mirador": http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_overview.htm
-- viewing tower with information board: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm
-- sight from viewing tower: http://www.hispanart.com/hispanartfoto/galerias/galeria_castro_prieto/galeria.htm
-- viewing tower with the drawings of the lizard, the tree, and the hands: http://www.galenfrysinger.com/nazca_lines.htm

-- Maria Reiche in a car in the plain in the 1970s about: http://www.geoglyphregistry.org/#

-- viewing hill with sunset: http://www.nylonhead.com/project/world/2008/10/natural_mirador.html

-- Maria Reiche with queen Sofia from Spain: http://www.planetabenitez.com/80mundo/nasca.htm;
www.jjbenitez.com

1980s
-- Maria Reiche, portrait of the 1980s about: http://www.geocities.com/nazca2001/book.htm
-- Maria Reiche, painted portrait of the 1980s about: http://www.womentcb.com/Travel-Destination_Unknown/
-- Maria Reiche in the desert plain in winter clothes, 1980s about (Kathy Doore):
http://www.markawasi.com/nazca.html
-- Maria Reiche Alley in Nasca 15 May 1983: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm
-- statue of Maria Reiche in Nasca in Maria Reiche Alley: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm
-- Maria Reiche in 1984 marching with two walking canes: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm
-- Renate Reiche-Grosse, portrait with guitar: Aurelio Baltazar Muñoz Alarcón: "Después de María... ¿qué? En el centenario de su nacimiento" (transl.: "After Maria... what will come?"); booklet of Nasca administration office in rememberence of the 100th birthday of Maria Reiche 1903 2003, p.11
-- Maria Reiche 1986, portrait:
http://www.southamericanpictures.com/archaelogy-history/pre-col%20peru/Nazca/nazca1.htm
-- Maria Reiche, portrait with colored towel, late 1980s about: http://mvdata.com/va/Historia_spa.htm

-- Peruvian Thick-knee (Huerequeque, burhinus superciliaris):
http://www.birdingperu.com/picsfiles/photos.asp?idtipopic=1&paginaactual=45

1990s
-- Nasca Lines Hotel, Nasca: http://www.nylonhead.com/project/world/2008/10/
-- Maria Reiche, portrait of the 1990s about: http://survive2012.com/index.php/nazca-lines-introduction.html

-- Maria Reiche with 92 years about, about 1995 in a wheel chair, with caretaker Francisco Cantoral and Ana María Cogorno: http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm

-- 17 December 1994 UNESCO protection board in the plain of Nasca:
http://www.nylonhead.com/project/world/2008/10/natural_mirador.html

-- Maria Reiche with 95 years with sister Renate and Ana María Cogorno:
http://www2.uah.es/vivatacademia/anteriores/n51/sociedad.htm

Earthquake in Nasca 1996
-- earthquake damage in Nasca 1996 (01) http://www.world-housing.net/whereport1view.php?id=100014
-- earthquake damage in Nasca 1996 (02): http://www.predes.org.pe/p_nasca.htm

Follower
-- Pilhips Pitluga, portrait: Aurelio Baltazar Muñoz Alarcón: "Después de María... ¿qué? En el centenario de su nacimiento" (transl.: "After Maria... what will come?"); booklet of Nasca administration office in rememberence of the 100th birthday of Maria Reiche 1903 2003, p.21

Maria Reiche Museum
-- Maria Reiche in 1977 in front of the circular wall of her house:
http://www.southamericanpictures.com/collections/maria-reiche/maria-reiche-index.htm
-- entrance of the museum of today: http://www.flickr.com/photos/25567712@N02/3798374224
-- room: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Reiche
-- Volkswagen VW  bus: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm

-- Maria Reiche Street, Dresden October 2005: http://www.htw-dresden.de/~nazca/aktiv.htm

Maria Reiche Park in Miraflores in Lima
-- drawing of the hands with 9 fingers: http://www.nazcamystery.com/nazca_mariareiche.htm
-- drawing of the monkey with 9 fingers: http://tatrine.blogg.de/
-- drawing of the spider: http://www.hotelslimaperu.info/category/image-galleries/what-do-after-arriving-lima-peru
-- drawing of the hummingbird:
http://lima.olx.com.pe/lujoso-dpto-de-estreno-190-mt-piscina-y-vista-al-mar-miraflores-iid-27902677


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